Wednesday, April 7, 2021

Vaccine to cure body odor?

There could be a vaccine for everything. Scientists are working on personal vaccines, vaccines reducing body weight or narcotic dependence, vaccines for just about anything.  Can there be a vaccine improving body odor? Certainly, and it could target not only bacteria (in body crevices) worsening odor, but also molecules responsible for odor. This would be a very complex task, however, as there is still a lot we don't understand.  For example, if metabolism and microbiomes leading to body odor cause similar reactions to already existing vaccines. 

Several vaccines to prevent COVID-19 were authorized for emergency use and hundreds of millions doses have been administered. 2 millions of vaccinated individuals in the US completed a health survey in the 7 days following their vaccination via the v-safe app.


This table shows top adverse reactions reported to the first two vaccines authorized in the US. Hundreds of social media groups on Facebook, reddit and WhatsApp are also flooded by descriptions of adverse reactions and immunity related events. What is missing? The ability to systematically analyze all these reactions in different health and neighborhood communities.

We started such a study in one neighborhood community and would like to also conduct it in the MEBO/PATM communities. We are also opening it to MEBO friends and family - asking them to indicate their relationship with MEBO/PATM in the comment section of the survey.

We are also collecting COVID-19 experiences in different groups of people, analyzing infectious disease susceptibility risks. 


in English: https://bit.ly/BTN-eng
en EspaƱol: https:/bit.ly/BTN-esp


Thank you for your help!



REFERENCES

ClinicalTrials.gov [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). 2021 April 6 - . Identifier NCT04832932, The COVID-19 Back-to-Normal Study [cited 2021 April 7]; Available from: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04832932

Chapin-Bardales J, Gee J, Myers T. Reactogenicity Following Receipt of mRNA-Based COVID-19 Vaccines. JAMA. 2021 Apr 5. doi: 10.1001/jama.2021.5374. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33818592. 

Zimmermann P, Curtis N. Factors that influence the immune response to vaccination. Clinical microbiology reviews. 2019 Mar 20;32(2). 

Mosquera MJ, Kim S, Zhou H, Jing TT, Luna M, Guss JD, Reddy P, Lai K, Leifer CA, Brito IL, Hernandez CJ. Immunomodulatory nanogels overcome restricted immunity in a murine model of gut microbiome–mediated metabolic syndrome. Science advances. 2019 Mar 1;5(3):eaav9788.

Bandaru P, Rajkumar H, Nappanveettil G. The impact of obesity on immune response to infection and vaccine: an insight into plausible mechanisms. Endocrinol Metab Synd. 2013;2(2):1000113-22. 

Kim YH, Kim JK, Kim DJ, Nam JH, Shim SM, Choi YK, Lee CH, Poo H. Diet-induced obesity dramatically reduces the efficacy of a 2009 pandemic H1N1 vaccine in a mouse model. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2012 Jan 15;205(2):244-51. 

 Monteiro MP. Obesity vaccines. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2014;10(4):887-95. doi: 10.4161/hv.27537. Epub 2013 Dec 23. PMID: 24365968; PMCID: PMC4896563. 

Ozgen MH, Blume S. The continuing search for an addiction vaccine. Vaccine. 2019 Aug 23;37(36):5485-90. 

Daniel W, Nivet M, Warner J, Podolsky DK. Early evidence of the effect of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine at one medical center. New England Journal of Medicine. 2021 Mar 23.

Tuesday, January 26, 2021

Rebuild your Health

There is increasing evidence that intestinal microbial dysbiosis has a role in the pathogenesis of systemic malodor conditions and other metabolic disorders. The most studied non-syndromic malodor condition Trimethylaminuria is usually inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion, which means that two mutations from both parents, both affecting abilities of FMO3 enzyme to catalyze the N-oxidation of trimethylamine into trimethylamine (eg, [Glu158Lys (rs2266782) and Glu308Gly (rs2266780)]), may be needed for a person to have symptoms. Yet genotype is not always predictive of phenotype, not even in this case.

Illustration by Monica Garwood

Studies have shown that the symptoms of metabolic inefficiencies, food intolerance and even allergies can be relieved by changing the composition of intestinal microbes and adjusting dietary components feeding these microbes - to encourage growth of microorganisms properly digesting problem ingredients. Lactose-digesting bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus, for example, can help to digest lactose into useful compounds, instead of offensive gas. On the other hand, the low-FODMAP diet reduces gastrointestinal symptoms by reducing the food that bacteria ferment. For lactose-intolerance, however,  the "O" in FODMAPs - oligosacharides - can be beneficial as Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are useful prebiotics promoting the growth of the right microorganisms. 

Rebuilding the network of microorganisms on and inside our bodies can help to improve the volatiles in the surrounding air, aka body and breath odor. Microbes associated with unpleasant odors include Anaerococcus, Corynebacterium, Campylobacter, and Propionibacterium [1], Gardnerella, Alloprevotella, Sutterella, and species of Candida. Microbes associated with improvements in odors include archaebiotic Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis, Lactobacillus pentosus KCA1, and Lactobacillus salivarius, but there are more, working together and relying on each other. Our studies (see protocols of microbiome [2] and volatilome [3] trials published on Medrxiv)  identified several microbial strains and volatile compounds associated with improvement of malodor symptoms. We are currently summarizing our results and plan to publish it. Development of personalized protocols and defining the right compositions of probiotics and prebiotics is a long-term research endeavor. Meanwhile, be your own best medical researcher and take control of your wellbeing: 

Step 1: Pull out your fitness journal and create an action plan

  • Analyze your diet, everyday activities, exercise and sleep patterns to make initial guesses about things that could be triggering your flareups or making you feel better. Write out a list of these things. 
  • Break your goal into small steps and milestones. For example: if you have fructose as a potential trigger on your list, go fructose free for a week. An earlier survey of about 100 body odor and halitosis sufferers indicated stress (34%), food (25%) and environment, including the weather and perfumed products (15%) as main triggers of odors or PATM. Make sure you are not missing something in your diet - like Zinc, Vitamin C, or Vitamin D - insufficient amounts of these vitamins and minerals could also contribute to PATM. 
  • Develop metrics for evaluating progress. Some people can't objectively evaluate their malodor or PATM condition. Try to find a trust buddy or take note of how the people around you react when you’re in close proximity. For example, pay attention to the space people leave between you and themselves (assuming COVID-19 is behind us and the 6-feet rule no longer applies!)
Step 2: Change your diet, physical activity and behavior
  • Intestinal lining is regenerating every five to seven days, so you need to stick to your diet for at least a week to notice improvements in your symptoms. Most elimination diets are actually recommended for about 3–6 weeks, to allow the antibodies (negatively reacting to problem food components) dissipate. So if your diet seems to be helping, extend it to 3 or 6 weeks. 
  • If it is not helping, try the next thing on your list. It should not be just diet - one study showed that bad breath was associated with abnormal sleep patterns. Perhaps you need to reevaluate your clothing material, temperature an humidity or mycotoxins in the environment? Are you getting enough sunlight ? Does your home have a healthy microbiome? Try to eliminate the triggers one at a time. No need to reduce your overall food intake, many people observe malodor or PATM flareups when they are hungry & undernourished. Try to train your body to digest more fiber - but start adding them to your diet little at a time, on weekends when you can safely experiment.   

Step 3: Let go of past hurts

  • Stop dwelling on the past. You have the power to change your future. Learn how to express confidence with your body language. Pretend you are comfortable in presence of other people and they will learn to be comfortable in yours. 


RFRERENCES

1. Gabashvili IS. Cutaneous Bacteria in the Gut Microbiome as Biomarkers of Systemic Malodor and People Are Allergic to Me (PATM) Conditions: Insights From a Virtually Conducted Clinical Trial. JMIR Dermatology. 2020 Nov 4;3(1):e10508.

2. Gabashvili I.S. Dynamics of the Gut Microbiota in MEBO and PATM conditions: Protocol of a fully remote clinical study. medRxiv. 2020 Aug.24. medRxiv 2020.08.21.20179242; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.21.20179242

3. Gabashvili I.S. Effects of diet, activities, environmental exposures and trimethylamine metabolism on alveolar breath compounds: protocol for a retrospective case-cohort observational study medRxiv 2021, Jan. 26 2021.01.25.21250101; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.01.25.21250101