Saturday, July 8, 2023

Mobiluncus and Peptoniphilus

Mobiluncus is one of bacteria reducing trimethylamine oxide to trimethylamine. It was also found to be associated with halitosis and bacterial vaginosis. We documented this bacterium in the gut and vaginal samples of several participants of our microbiome study. A new paper found Mobiluncus in umbilical dirt of the high odor score group. 

Since odor scores did not show a normal distribution, samples were divided into two groups, one with an odor score ≥2.0 and one <2. Well-known resident bacteria of skin, such as Cutibacterium, Staphylococcus, and Corynebacterium, were not detected, whereas some anaerobic bacteria, including Mobiluncus (q-value=2.1E-33), Arcanobacterium (q-value=4.5E-22), and Peptoniphilus (q-value=4.3E-17), were highly abundant in umbilical dirt samples with high odor scores. The same genera were detected when samples were divided into two groups with an odor score ≥1.5 as the criterion.

By a predictive metagenome analysis using Picrust2, the authors identified genes that appeared to be specific to umbilical dirt with high odor scores. Metabolic pathways common to the extracted gene groups were analyzed by GSEA (Gene Set Enrichment Analysis). Anaerobic metabolic pathways, such as methane metabolism and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, were more abundant in the high odor score group, and secondary metabolite production pathways, such as the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and quorum sensing, were also identified.

While, Mobiluncus is associated with halitosis and bacterial vaginosis, Peptinophilus contributes to underarm odor by producing chemicals such as butyric acid. Acetobacter is one of species that could be counteracting the undesirable odors in this context. 


REFERENCES

Yano T, Okajima T, Tsuchiya S, Tsujimura H. Microbiota in Umbilical Dirt and Its Relationship with Odor. Microbes Environ. 2023;38(3). doi: 10.1264/jsme2.ME23007. PMID: 37407492.

Valerie M, Milaine T, Aicha N, Roger A, Patrick MJ, Ibrahima D, Nehemie D, Laure N, Angeline B. Survey on Intravaginal Practices among Women of Reproductive Age at the Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital of Yaounde: Association with Bacterial Vaginosis Caused by Gardnerella Vaginalis and Mobiluncus. International Journal Of Medical Science And Clinical Research Studies. 2023 Jan 30;3(1):121-6.

Gabashvili IS Cutaneous Bacteria in the Gut Microbiome as Biomarkers of Systemic Malodor and People Are Allergic to Me (PATM) Conditions: Insights From a Virtually Conducted Clinical Trial. JMIR Dermatol 2020;3(1):e10508  doi: 10.2196/10508

Zhang L, Hong Q, Yu C, Wang R, Li C, Liu S. Acetobacter sp. improves the undesirable odors of fermented noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) juice. Food Chemistry. 2023 Feb 1;401:134126. 

Wednesday, July 5, 2023

Digital Forensics and Sensory Forecasting through VOC Analysis

Everyone leaves a trace, whether it's a tangible object, invisible DNA, or even an odor. 

In a recent study, a team of scientists achieved a remarkable 96% accuracy in determining human sex using a machine learning model guided by human expertise. Researchers collected hand odor samples from 60 individuals and analyzed them using Headspace-Solid Phase Microextraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). The results revealed distinct VOC signatures that allowed for the classification and prediction of gender. Various dimensional reduction techniques were employed to interpret the data, such as Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), Orthogonal-Projections to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA), and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). The highest discrimination and classification of subject gender were observed with OPLS-DA and LDA as confidence level ellipses of both models were not seen to intersect. 

In another study, a combination of deep learning, chemometrics, and sensory evaluation proved effective in distinguishing between various methods of roasting food. The researchers employed E-nose and E-tongue devices, quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), HS-GC-IMS, and HS-SPME-GC–MS to differentiate lamb shashliks prepared through traditional charcoal grilling and four alternative methods. The results showed that these techniques effectively identified the characteristic flavors and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with each roasting method. The clustering heat maps were generated using TBtools and Python was used to run SVM, RF, XGBoost, DNN 5-layer, CNN-SVM, and t-SNE. The CNN-SVM model outperformed other models in predicting VOC content and identifying the specific roasting methods. 


REFERENCES


Chantrell J. G. Frazier ,Vidia A. Gokool ,Howard K. Holness,DeEtta K. Mills,Kenneth G. Furton. Multivariate regression modelling for gender prediction using volatile organic compounds from hand odor profiles via HS-SPME-GC-MS Published: July 5, 2023
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0286452

Shen C, Cai Y, Ding M, Wu X, Cai G, Wang B, Gai S, Liu D. Predicting VOCs content and roasting methods of lamb shashliks using deep learning combined with chemometrics and sensory evaluation. Food Chem X. 2023 Jun 14;19:100755. doi: 10.1016/j.fochx.2023.100755. PMID: 37389322; PMCID: PMC10300318.






Monday, May 22, 2023

Exploring the Potential of Bioactive Textiles

The advancements in textile technology led to fabrics that not only clothe us but also promote a healthier and safer lifestyle. From antimicrobial and antioxidant properties to anti-inflammatory and anti-odor capabilities, along with protection against ultraviolet (UV) radiation and repelling unwanted elements, these textiles are setting a new standard for comfort, protection, and style. 

In an upcoming paper set to appear in the European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics (online ahead of print), the impact of bioactive textiles on human skin microbiota is extensively reviewed. 

The paper highlights the growing recognition that textile materials have a profound impact on the microorganisms present on the skin, leading to issues such as biological degradation, loss of strength, elongation, discoloration, and unpleasant odors (see Van Herreweghen et al). The emergence of "maskne," a form of mechanical acne resulting from continuous textile-skin adherence, further underscores the significance of this impact, causing dysbiosis in the skin microbiota and the growth of specific disease-associated species. 

Additionally, clothing textiles can act as carriers of microorganisms, posing risks of cross-infection, disease transmission, allergies, and malodors among individuals (reviewed in this paper). To address these challenges posed by microbial growth on textiles, the textile industry has made the search for new bioactive molecules with antimicrobial properties a top priority.

While functional textiles offer promising solutions, further research is needed to fully understand their environmental impact. To enhance the functionality of textiles and mitigate harm, the use of natural dyes derived from herbs, such as black cherry stems and hops flowers, is being explored. This approach not only improves functionality but also aligns with eco-friendly practices. Achieving the full potential of bioactive textiles requires interdisciplinary collaboration, bringing together expertise from various fields to develop safe and effective products that promote human health and safety.


REFERENCES

Suellen Ferro de Oliveira C, Kekhasharú Tavaria F. The impact of bioactive textiles on human skin microbiota. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2023 May 12:S0939-6411(23)00118-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2023.05.004. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 37182552.

Van Herreweghen F, Amberg C, Marques R, Callewaert C. Biological and chemical processes that lead to textile malodour development. Microorganisms. 2020 Oct 31;8(11):1709.

Gulati R, Sharma S, Sharma RK. Antimicrobial textile: recent developments and functional perspective. Polymer Bulletin. 2022 Aug;79(8):14346-14364, DOI: 10.1080/15440478.2022.2064391

Thursday, March 23, 2023

Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and other emerging probiotics

In the past few decades, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium genera were the main bacteria to be used as probiotics. One of the reasons for such attention was that these bacteria have the ability to thrive aerobically and are simple to package for sale. Cass Nelson-Dooley and Tony Hoffman of Metametrix (acquired by Genova Diagnostics in 2012) talked about these probiotics in MEBO interviews in 2009, emphasizing that high levels of Lactobacillus could be bad in some cases. Diets rich in simple carbs, poor absorption and small intestinal pockets can feed and trap excess Lactobacillus. Adding probiotics Bifidobacteria or Saccharomyces boulardii and prebiotic fiber to the diet could, in their opinion, help the MEBO population. D-lactate was one of the tests they offered that measured the level of this byproduct of bacterial fermentation, indicating an overgrowth of bacteria in the small intestine. According to our early clinical studies, D-lactate, however, was elevated in less than 20% of MEBO and PATM populations. 

Even though Lactobacillus is only a minor member of the human colonic microbiota, the proportions of those bacteria and particular strains are frequently either positively or negatively correlated with human disease and chronic conditions. Although it generally is not considered a pathogen, it can cause disease in compromised hosts, including bacterial endocarditis, pleuropulmonary infections, gastrointestinal abscesses, urinary tract infection, conjunctivitis, dental caries, and endometritis. Lactobacillus bacteremia, presumably secondary to bacterial translocation from the gastrointestinal tract, has been reported in a patient with severe intestinal inflammation caused by ulcerative colitis. A decrease in genus Faecalibacterium and increase in Lactobacillaceae has been previously reported in patients with constipation (Lactiplantibacillus plantarum P9 supplementation, on the other hand, helped to increase frequency of bowel movements, while L11 improved gut health and odor in cats). Compared to healthy individuals, pediatric and adult Crohn's disease (CD) patients had an increased relative abundance of Lactobacillus species. In both cases, Lactobacillus enrichment coincided with depletion of F. prausnitzii - that could represent a good candidate as next-generation probiotic. Another study found that Weissella cibaria ZWC030 can inhibit scatole. 

The percentages of Bifidobacterium and the Lactobacillus group presented a decreasing trend in patients with quiescent ulcerative colitis (UC) compared to active UC, although no significant differences were observed. Excessive amounts of Bifidobacteria can have negative effects on the body, such as in the case of Bifidobacterium breve bacteremia caused by excessive probiotic supplementation in infants with gastrointestinal conditions. On the other hand, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and F. prausnitzii are depleted in IBS patients, resulting in lower SCFA concentrations (short-chain fatty acids, which are organic acids produced by gut bacteria during fermentation of indigestible foods) compared with healthy individuals. Maternal prenatal stress could also cause lower levels of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium and keep them low even later in life. With lower levels of Bifidobacterium, celiac patients have an imbalance in the intestinal microbiota, regardless of pH, even while on a gluten-free diet. Hormone treatment affects Bifidobacterium longum's ability to produce acids: progesterone reduces lactic acid and acetic acid production, while estradiol and thyroxine increase levels of both lactic acid and acetic acid (ethinyl estradiol) or lactic acid and butyric acid (thyroxine hormone). 

Data from our microbiome study (NCT03582826: Microbial Basis of Systemic Malodor and "People Allergic To Me" Conditions  - ClinicalTrials.gov) show that while there was a general trend of increasing levels of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus in individuals who achieve remission, less than 10% of participants needed to boost levels of both species to improve their condition. In line with previous knowledge, in MEBO/PATM population, Bifidobacteria (one of the first microbes to colonize the human gastrointestinal tract) was more common in younger individuals. About one third of the participants experienced lesser symptoms when increasing levels of their gut Bifidobacteria, another third benefited from more Lactobacillus and the remaining third felt better when increasing levels of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (a butyrate-producing anaerobe typically associated with good health). Changes in the levels of these bacteria corresponding to recovering are overlayed on Figure 5 from our paper published in JMIR dermatology. It was illustrating changes in microbial diversity vs abundances of selected bacterial species associated with odor (CSS) for 12 female (F1-F12) and 10 male (M1-M19) participants who self-reported both flare-ups (beginning of the arrow) and improvements (end of the arrow). We added text boxes showing whether the levels of F. prausnitzii (F), Bifidobacterium (B) and Lactobacillus (L) are increasing (🡹) , decreasing (🡻) or fluctuating (🡺) as symptoms resolve. It is obvious that individuals with the highest bacterial diversity don't benefit from increasing levels of probiotic diversity, while those with low diversity levels do need more probiotic microbes in their system. The figure demonstrates the complexity of these bacterial perturbations and emphasizes the need to consider more than just three species when predicting which treatment will work best for reducing MEBO and PATM symptoms. 

As we mentioned in the previous blog post, Lactobacillus is the main genera responsible for odors of the uncooked food waste. Some strains of Lactobacillus produce lactic acid, which can contribute to a more acidic environment in the gut. This can be beneficial for some people, but for others it can exacerbate odor issues. Bifidobacteria could also produce organic acids such as acetic acid and lactic acid in addition to short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) like butyrate, which can have anti-inflammatory effects and promote gut health, but some people may find it unpleasantly smelling. F. prausnitzii produces a range of metabolites including one of the worst smelling compounds Putrescine. F. prausnitzii  plays important role in balancing immunity. Its butyrate production has been correlated to the capacity to induce IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) but not to the ability to block IL-8 secretion in TNF-α-stimulated HT-29 cells. In COVID-19, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii has been inversely correlated with disease severity. 

Research has shown that the gut microbiome is far more complex than previously thought, with hundreds of bacterial species interacting in a delicate balance.  Therefore, focusing solely on Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, or any other bacterium, may not be enough to promote a healthy gut microbiome for everyone. Besides, different strains of bacteria within the same species can have different effects on the body.

After more than a century of research, the following species are identified as the primary probiotic species of Lactobacillus species: L.acidophilus, L.casei, L.fermentum, L.gasseri, L.johnsonii, L.paracasei, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, and L. salivarius. For Bifidobacteria these are: B.adolescentis, B.animalis, B.bifidum, B.breve, and B.longum. We are learning more about strains of these species. Novel probiotic strain Bifidobacterium bifidum CECT 7366 is active against the pathogenic bacterium Helicobacter pylori - and so are variations of Saccharomyces Boulardii and Lactobacilli johnsonii. Another strain L. plantarum 299v can directly interfere with E. coli colonization and improve the immunological status of the intestinal mucosa although these results have not yet been confirmed in humans. Lactobacillus GR-1 and B-54 or RC-14 strains in the vagina has been shown to reduce the risk of urinary tract infections. Mileti et al. found that Lactobacillus paracasei displayed a delay in the development of colitis and a decreased severity of disease but that L. plantarum and L. rhamnosus GG exacerbated the development of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. 

L. rhamnosus supplementation contributes to higher intestinal absorption of free choline and elevated production of methylamines including TMA, whereas L. paracasei consumption may result in increasing bacterial consumption of choline for cholesterol assimilation and phospholipid metabolism rather than for methylamine metabolism.

Bifidobacterium supplemented with various fiber additives can prevent the growth of Clostridium difficile, while Lactobacillus salivarius protects the broiler chicks from Salmonella infections. Several strains of other species promising as probiotics are from Roseburia spp., Akkermansia spp., and Faecalibacterium spp. Probiotic potential risk score (PPRS) allowed to classify 84 Faecalibacterium prausnitzii strains  into low-, medium-, and high-risk groups. 15 strains identified as low-risk strains are prioritized for clinical application. 

Unfortunately, the extreme oxygen sensitivity of F. prausnitzii imposes practical challenges to the production, transportation, storage, and manufacturing of probiotic products to be evaluated in a clinical setting. Instead, we have to turn to prebiotics - a type of dietary fiber - in our food . F. prausnitzii's growth is promoted by inulin, inositol (vitamin B8) and fructo-oligosaccharides, chicory roots, wheat, onion, banana, garlic, and leek, wheat, rye, rice, barley, oat, and sorghum, and gold kiwifruit

Gut microbiota can be also influenced by phytochemicals. In one study, black raspberry (BR) reduced the serum levels of trimethylamine-N-oxide and cholesterol in rats fed excessive choline with a high-fat diet (HFC). The authors hypothesized that since gut microbiota plays a crucial role in the production of trimethylamine and microbial metabolites, BR could influence gut microbial composition. Their study examined microbiomes and metabolomes of rats and showed that the BR supplementation enriched Bifidobacterium and reduced Clostridium cluster XIVa. 

While we have made significant progress in understanding the role of probiotics and prebiotics in supporting our gut health, it's important to recognize that there is still a great deal that we don't know. It's becoming increasingly clear that a personalized approach to prebiotic and probiotic use may be necessary to achieve optimal health outcomes. This approach involves paying attention to how different foods make you feel and adjusting your diet accordingly, while eating a diverse and balanced diet that incorporates a variety of whole foods and phytochemicals, staying hydrated, getting enough sleep and exercise, and managing stress levels. Focusing on overall health and well-being will help to support the body's natural ability to maintain a healthy microbiome and avoid dysbiosis-related health issues.



REFERENCES


Din AU, Hassan A, Zhu Y, Yin T, Gregersen H, Wang G. Amelioration of TMAO through probiotics and its potential role in atherosclerosis. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2019 Dec;103:9217-28.

Pacifico L, Osborn JF, Bonci E, Romaggioli S, Baldini R, Chiesa C. Probiotics for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in children. World J Gastroenterol 2014; 20(3): 673-683 [PMID: 24574741 DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i3.673] 

Lim T, Lee K, Kim RH, Ryu J, Cha KH, Park SY, Koo SY, Hwang KT. Effects of black raspberry extract on gut microbiota, microbial metabolites, and expressions of the genes involved in cholesterol and bile acid metabolisms in rats fed excessive choline with a high-fat diet. Food Sci Biotechnol. 2023 Feb 13;32(4):577-587. doi: 10.1007/s10068-023-01267-4. PMID: 36911337; PMCID: PMC9992478.

Heeney DD, Gareau MG, Marco ML. Intestinal Lactobacillus in health and disease, a driver or just along for the ride?. Current opinion in biotechnology. 2018 Feb 1;49:140-7.

Martín R, Miquel S, Benevides L, Bridonneau C, Robert V, Hudault S, Chain F, Berteau O, Azevedo V, Chatel JM, Sokol H. Functional characterization of novel Faecalibacterium prausnitzii strains isolated from healthy volunteers: a step forward in the use of F. prausnitzii as a next-generation probiotic. Frontiers in microbiology. 2017 Jun 30;8:1226.

Nalbandian A, Sehgal K, Gupta A, Madhavan MV, McGroder C, Stevens JS, Cook JR, Nordvig AS, Shalev D, Sehrawat TS, Ahluwalia N. Post-acute COVID-19 syndrome. Nature medicine. 2021 Apr;27(4):601-15.

Bai Z, Zhang N, Jin Y, Chen L, Mao Y, Sun L, Fang F, Liu Y, Han M, Li G. Comprehensive analysis of 84 Faecalibacterium prausnitzii strains uncovers their genetic diversity, functional characteristics, and potential risks. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. 2023 Jan 4;12:1924.

Gabashvili I.S. Cutaneous Bacteria in the Gut Microbiome as Biomarkers of Systemic Malodor and People Are Allergic to Me (PATM) Conditions: Insights From a Virtually Conducted Clinical Trial. JMIR Dermatol 2020;3(1):e10508 URL: https://derma.jmir.org/2020/1/e10508 DOI: 10.2196/10508

Rašić, J.L., Vujičić, I.F., Škrinjar, M. et al. Assimilation of cholesterol by some cultures of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. Biotechnol Lett 14, 39–44 (1992). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01030911

Wednesday, January 25, 2023

Food, Hormones and Odor Pollution

While there is not enough research on human odors, there are plenty of studies that can be related to this topic. Scientific papers published in January are about goats, fish, fermented food and biological waste. 

It is worth examining some of the latest findings and how they may be translated into take-home messages for humans.

1. Intermittent fasting could improve body odor. 

At least for fish. The study aimed to investigate the response of intestinal microbiota during 3 weeks’ starvation of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), found that food deprivation helped to improve the odor of an economically important freshwater fish by reducing earthy-musty off-flavor compounds such as geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol. The study revealed that certain actinobacteria such as Microbacterium and Nocardioides were able to grow better than Mycoplasma, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and Microbacterium when the fish were in a fasted state. This suggests that intermittent fasting may help to improve body odor by promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria and reducing the growth of odor-causing bacteria. However, more research is needed to confirm these findings in human studies. Besides, our own data show that people smell worse when starving themselves and it is a good idea to not go overboard. 

2. Adding fiber to diet and reducing stress levels can improve body odor. 

Korean native black goats (KNBG) are able to adapt to a wide variety of climatic conditions and foraging preferences. Twenty-four KNBG (48.6 ± 1.4 kg) were randomly allocated to one of four treatments featuring different dietary forage (high in fiber) to concentrate ratio (high forage [HF, 80:20] and low forage [LF, 20:80]), and a castration treatment (castration [CA] vs. non-castration [NCA] - aka higher levels of sex hormones, stress hormones). The animals were maintained on a free-choice feed and water regimen.

The intensity of a strong “goaty” flavor was remarkably enhanced when non-castrated KNBG were fed with the low forage diet. Better smelling goats had more hydrocarbons and ketones while worse smelling ones were higher in aliphatic aldehydes, possibly owing to the activity of testosterone, androsterone, and skatole. For volatile compounds, dichloromethane (chloroform-like odor) and m-xylene (plastic odor) were reported to be linked with the “strong lamb odor” influenced by dietary selection. 

10% fermented mixed feed supplementation (compared to 5% or 0%) helped to improve flavor of pork by increasing the contents of total aldehydes, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, dodecanal, nonanal and 2-decenal, along with inosine monophosphate. 

A healthy gut microbiome may positively influence sex hormones by regulating the appetite and reducing insulin resistance. Acute psychosocial stress, on the other hand, causes unhealthy fluctuations in sex hormone levels.  

Here are a few tables compiled from the goat diet/hormones article:

Microbe GenusCompounds positively correlatedCompounds negatively correlated.
FlexilineaC16:0 (Palmitic acid, oily smell)C18:2n6 (Methyl linoleate, oily odor), C18:3n3 (Linoleic acid, oily, low odor), PUFA
IhubacterC16:0 (Palmitic acid, oily smell)C18:2n6, C18:3n3 (Linoleic acid), PUFA
Ruminococcus-C16:0 (Palmitic acid, oily smell)
ChristensenellaC18:0 (Stearic acid), PUFAC16:1n7 (Palmitoleic Acid, Cardioprotective - smells like Old Books)
LachnoclostridiumC18:1n9 Oleic acid)C18:2n6, C18:3n3 (Linoleic acid),, PUFA
Treponema-C18:0 (Stearic acid), C18:3n3 (Linoleic acid), C20:4n6 (Arachidonic acid: from marine, at low concentrations, to intense orange-citrus and animal-like odor)
SucciniclasticumC18:1n7 (Vaccenic acid), C18:3n3 (Linoleic acid)-
DesulfovibrioC18:1n7 (Vaccenic acid)-
Blautia-C18:2n6 (Linolelaidic acid)
Rhabdanaerobium-C18:3n3 (Linoleic acid)
Gracilibacter-C18:3n3 (Linoleic acid)
Butyrivibrio-C18:3n3 (Linoleic acid)
ParaprevotellaC20:4n6, C22:4n6-
IntestinimonasC22:4n6-

This table summarizes the relationship between meat fatty- composition and rumen bacteria at the genus level. 

Higher levels of carbohydrates may promote the persistence and flavor formation of Z. rouxii (Zygosaccharomyces, a genus of yeasts in the family Saccharomycetaceae) in the moromi soy sauce, and it changes its aroma profile. Not sure if it is to the better or worse. 

3. Acinetobacter is associated with fish odor and the odor of biowaste. It is also associated with odor in MEBO and PATM populations - this is one of not yet published results of our microbiome study  (in addition to skin bacteria)

A study to be published in print in the February issue of "Science of The Total Environment", examined odor profiles of cooked and uncooked food waste.

Odor pollution often occurs in the initial decomposition stage of municipal biowaste, including throwing/collection and transportation. However, this aspect of odor impact from municipal biowaste has not been well studied. In Nie and colleagues' experiments, a practical dustbin (120 L) equipped with flux chamber and filled with three types of municipal biowaste was used to simulate garbage storage conditions. The result indicated that the emission rate of odor pollutants for uncooked food waste (UFW) represented a nearly linear growth trend, reaching the maximum (3963 ± 149 μg kg−1 DM h−1) at 72 h. Cooked food waste (CFW) increased rapidly from 8 h to 24 h, and then remain fluctuated, reached the maximum (2026 ± 77 μg kg−1 DM h−1) at 72 h. Comparatively, household kitchen waste (HKW) reached the maximum emission rate (10,396 ± 363 μg kg−1 DM h−1) at 16 h. Sulfide and aldehydes ketones were identified as dominant odor contributor to UFW and CFW, respectively. While aldehydes ketones and sulfides were both dominant odor contributor to HKW. Moreover, the microbial diversity analysis suggests that Acinetobacter was the dominant genus in UFW, and Lactobacillus was the dominant genus in CFW and HKW. In addition, it was evident that each odorous pollutant was significantly associated with two or more bacterial genera, and most bacterial genera such as Acinetobacter, were also significantly associated with multiple odorous pollutants. The variation of odorants composition kept consistent with microbial composition. The present study could provide essential evidence for a comprehensive understanding of odorant generation in the initial decomposition stage of municipal biowaste. It could contribute to setting out strategies for odor control and abatement in municipal biowaste management systems.

The highest emission was observed in household kitchen waste with alcohol esters.

The highest total odor activity values were observed in uncooked food waste.

Lactobacillus was the dominant genus in household kitchen waste and cooked food waste.

Acinetobacter was the dominant genus in uncooked food waste. 

The variation of odorants composition kept consistent with microbial composition.




REFERENCES

Lee J, Kim HJ, Lee SS, Kim KW, Kim DK, Lee SH, Lee ED, Choi BH, Barido FH, Jang A. Effects of diet and castration on fatty acid composition and volatile compounds in the meat of Korean native black goats. Anim Biosci. 2023 Jan 11. doi: 10.5713/ab.22.0378. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36634653. download pdf

Zou S, Ni M, Liu M, Xu Q, Zhou D, Gu Z, Yuan J. Starvation alters gut microbiome and mitigates off-flavors in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Folia Microbiologica. 2023 Jan 13:1-2.

Lülf RH, Selg-Mann K, Hoffmann T, Zheng T, Schirmer M, Ehrmann MA. Carbohydrate Sources Influence the Microbiota and Flavour Profile of a Lupine-Based Moromi Fermentation. Foods. 2023 Jan 2;12(1):197. doi: 10.3390/foods12010197. PMID: 36613413; PMCID: PMC9818829.

Nie E, Wang W, Duan H, Zhang H, He P, Lü F. Emission of odor pollutants and variation in microbial community during the initial decomposition stage of municipal biowaste. Sci Total Environ. 2023 Feb 25;861:160612. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.160612. Epub 2022 Nov 29. PMID: 36455726.

Shi Q, Tang X, Liu BQ, Liu WH, Li H, Luo YY. Correlation between microbial communities and key odourants in fermented capsicum inoculated with Pediococcus pentosaceus and Cyberlindnera rhodanensis. J Sci Food Agric. 2023 Feb;103(3):1139-1151. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.12321. Epub 2022 Nov 24. PMID: 36349455.

Gabashvili IS Cutaneous Bacteria in the Gut Microbiome as Biomarkers of Systemic Malodor and People Are Allergic to Me (PATM) Conditions: Insights From a Virtually Conducted Clinical Trial JMIR Dermatol 2020;3(1):e10508 doi:  10.2196/10508

Search Odors (cdc.gov) - database of toxic chemicals

OdorDB: Home (yale.edu)

Tuesday, December 20, 2022

Current Trends in Deodorization

In the Victorian era, people would wash off with a sponge soaked in cool water and vinegar, use sweat-absorbing pads in armpit areas and overwhelm unpleasant smells with perfume. The most popular scent was ambergris known for its marine, sweat and earthy scent with a fecal note (if not properly aged). Since energy was obtained from burning of fuels, large amounts of sulfur were always present in the air, covering odors of animal and human waste released into river and streams. 

Engineers eventually designed centralized closed water sewage treatment systems and modern plumbing, enabling rigorous personal hygiene. But in the early 1900s, fear-based marketing convinced people that they smelled bad, and this turned niche deodorant trades into a $22 billion industry. Odorono (from "Odor? Oh No!") was one of the first antiperspirants at the forefront of this transformation. 

The use of antiperspirant deodorants has been declining in recent years due to their potential effect on health and environment, and the availability of more natural and organic alternatives. COVID-19 pandemics has also negatively affected the deodorant market. As a result, the demand for deodorization has decreased during these times. But innovation continues.

Across North America, the deodorants market witnessed growth of few brands creating antiperspirants intended for alternative body parts, such as hands, face, and feet. For example, Gamer Grip Hand Antiperspirant, designed for athletes to improve their grip, has a lasting fragrance for 4 to 6 hours. Neat 3B Face Saver is an antiperspirant gel for the face that can be applied before makeup. Carpe No-Sweat Face is a natural, sweat absorbing gelled lotion created with sweat absorbing ingredients like jojoba esters, vitamin B3, silica microspheres, aloe vera, and colloidal oatmeal.

In the early 2000s, new types of deodorants appeared on the market. Deo Perfume Candy, Swallowable Parfum, and Otoko Kaoru were designed as edibles, and the fragrance was supposed to be released from the user's mouth and nose. However, these products were eventually discontinued due to safety concerns, as well as their lack of popularity. 

Beginning in the mid-2000s, many clothing companies started incorporating silver nanoparticles into their products including nano-engineered anti-odor textiles. While the technology was initially developed for use in the medical industry (antimicrobial wound dressings), nano-porous materials in clothing presented another way to manage body odor. These materials offered the potential to make traditional deodorants old-fashioned or even obsolete. 

Ag nanoparticles, for example, are effective at slowing the growth of bacteria that cause body odor and itchiness. Nano-silver socks help in preventing bacterial and fungal growth. Haojey creates textiles comprising a TiO2 particle core to provide UV resistance, silver nanoparticles for antibacterial textiles, and nanobamboo for odor adsorption. Cotton treated with pomegranate and galnut extract showed excellent deodorizing performance against trimethylamine. Odor-free medical masks are fabricated using Polyvinyl Butyral and Eucalyptus Anti Odor Agent. Aloe Vera and Polyvinyl Alcohol (AV/PVA) electrospun nanofibers show excellent results suppressing growth of S. aureus bacteria (by ~25%) although not E. coli. A team from UC Berkeley introduced a way to reduce underarm sweating and odor by using a cross-linked microporous copolymer containing methacrylate and acrylate units. 

Unfortunately, many of nano-infused textile products are investigated as skin irritants. Besides, considerable amounts of Ag nanoparticles were found to be released on washing Ag nanoparticle integrated fabrics, which is highly toxic to aquatic life. 

Another trend in the world of skincare that started in the late 2000s was topically applied probiotics. 

Although the idea is not new, as research into the human microbiome began to uncover the role that probiotics could play in improving health, the use of probiotics, prebiotics and postbiotics to help combat odor-causing bacteria began to gain traction. Oral deodorizers with probiotics are already commonly found in the market in the form of chewing tablets, lozenges, and capsules. Topical probiotic formulations could exert anti-inflammatory effects by stimulating regulatory T-cells and release of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10, within the immune system, competing with odor-causing microbes for nutrients, and aggregating and displacing them. When applied to the skin, Lactobacilli, for example, exhibits antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium) acnes. Topical microbiome transplantation (Roseomonas mucosa lysate cultured from healthy volunteers) is believed to improve atopic dermatitis by restoring epithelial barrier function and innate/adaptive immune balance as well as via inhibition of S. aureus growth. Nitrosomonas eutropha improves appearance of skin. Transplantation of microbiome enriched in S. epidermidis helped to reduce axillary malodor in siblings or other matching individuals. Bacteria responsible for odor emitted from the skin is known and is common for individuals suffering from a variety of odor disorders, including those with genetic variations in ABCC11, FMO3 and those with idiopathic malodor. The presence of these bacteria in the gut microbiome correlates with the intensity of malodor. Balancing composition of gut microbes will definitely help to improve the odor but may take a long time and require tailor-made diets. And it is not clear if "suicide substrate inhibitors" such as iodomethylcholine are sufficiently safe to use.

More than a dozen topical probiotic species have been found to have a unique spectrum of characteristics, including keratin adhesion, inhibitory action, organic acid production, and inhibition of biofilm formation, skin whitening, moisturizing, anti-aging, anti-wrinkle and removing body odor. A new bilayer vaginal tablet of Lactococcus lactis has been designed for the treatment of vaginal bacterial infections and could also help to combat unpleasant odors. And so could Nitrosomonas eutropha, although so far it was only proven to help with acne. Genetically modified bacteria are also being investigated as topical therapeutics. Candidate genes are Fillaggrin, LEKTI, IL-10, genes encoding growth factors and hormones. Studies of safety and efficiency are still, however, in very early stages. The application of high amounts of bacteria, could, for example, lead to a skin immune reaction with irritation and side effects as a result. It could also lead to infection. 

The skin microbiome is relatively stable and quickly restores after washing and skincare product application, even if they contain antimicrobials. The reason is, skin microbiome is actually derived from within the skin, the deeper stratum corneum layers, skin hair follicles and is connected to the gut microbiome. Skin microbiome transplantation methods are currently being investigated and showed some promising results although many challenges remain that need to be overcome. 

Probiotic-infused products and skin transplants are gaining popularity due to their ability to promote healthy bacteria growth on the skin, which can, for example, help reduce body odor. However, there is still a lack of strong scientific evidence of effectiveness and a lack of thorough understanding of side effects.  Probiotics are living microorganisms, which means that they are sensitive to environmental conditions and can be difficult to work with. This can make it challenging to incorporate probiotics into skincare products in a way that preserves their effectiveness and stability. Finally, there are regulatory issues to consider when it comes to introducing new probiotic-based skincare products to the market. In order to be sold as a cosmetic product, a skincare product must be safe and effective, and the manufacturer must provide evidence to support these claims. This process can be time-consuming and costly and may discourage some companies from investing in the development of new probiotic-based skincare products. 

Overall, while there is a growing interest in the potential benefits of probiotics, prebiotics and postbiotics for the skin, the development of new probiotic-infused skincare products is likely to continue to be slow and incremental as researchers and manufacturers work to understand more about how probiotics work and how they can be effectively incorporated into skincare products. 

It is likely that skincare products developed in the future will be tailored to specific genetic profiles, as researchers continue to learn more about the role that genetics plays in skin health and the skincare concerns that people may have. 

One example is a urea-containing moisturizer that could be effective for people with a certain genetic variation in the filaggrin gene, Transient erythema (reddening of skin) is a potential side effect. A number of genes (such as MC1R, ASIP and BNC2) are related to skin conditions including sun sensitivity, skin moisturizing function, oxidative stress, stretch marks, and skin inflammation and are being investigated in personalized skincare R&D. 

Gene therapy and enzyme replacement therapies have achieved some notable successes in recent years. For instance, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Luxturna for a rare form of inherited blindness, and Kymriah using genetically modified T cells to attack cancer cells, in 2017. However, the costs of research and development and the risk of side effects are extremely high. 
As a result, it can be difficult to obtain funding for non-fatal conditions like TMAU (trimethylaminuria). Trinzyme, a company focused on enzyme replacement therapies, was founded in 2011 with the goal of developing treatments for TMAU. While the company was able to secure initial funding, it has not yet been able to deliver on its promise of a treatment for this condition. Despite these challenges, the potential for gene therapy and enzyme replacement therapies to revolutionize the way we treat and prevent diseases remains significant, and research and development in these fields continues to advance.

In 2022, several companies started testing their deodorizing cosmetic products intended to block smelly chemical trimethylamine, emitted from the skin if the liver cannot completely break down this product of essential nutrients. Spain-based perfume manufacturer Eurofragance has recently teamed up with a Barcelona Children Hospital on a project to neutralize the strong odor of those who suffer from trimethylaminuria (caused by genetic mutations that affect the FMO3 function of the liver). The hospital's program initially focused on pediatric subjects with primary carnitine deficiency, manifesting as metabolic encephalopathy, lipid storage myopathy, or cardiomyopathy. Since the patients are not able to process long-chain fatty acids to convert them into energy, the accumulation of toxic fatty acyl derivatives impedes gluconeogenesis and urea cycle function which, in turn, causes hypoketotic hypoglycemia, transaminase elevations, and hyperammonemia - hence fishy odor. Eurofragance solution has citrus notes blocking the fish odor receptors in the nose. This way the fishy odor does not disappear, but it is not perceived. Eurofragance designed body cream lotion with 1% fragrance, an eau de toilette with 5% fragrance and a body serum with 2% fragrance. Other businesses designing their own solutions were Nannic "Skin care by science", and stealth-mode teams from British and US companies. 

While there is still a lot more research to be done, the development of these new deodorizing cosmetic products has provided hope for those who struggle with trimethylaminuria and similar conditions.

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